Even by the tumultuous standards of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the past few years have been remarkably violent and destructive. The Syrian and Libyan economies have nearly entirely collapsed due to chaos and civil war, while Iraq is struggling to stay a oat as it seeks to fully eradicate IS inuences. As millions of Syrians seek to escape the bloodshed, neighbouring countries like Jordan and Lebanon struggle to cope with massive population inuxes, stretching thin resources and insucient infrastructure to meet the needs of refugees. In Yemen, the Saudi-led coalition continues to bomb Houthi rebel groups, while a newly signed peace agreement after a two-year civil war in South Sudan may not last. Moreover, the larger regional power struggle between Saudi Arabia and Iran will likely lead to further proxy conflicts in the coming years.