Hopes of a resolution to the political situation in Libya, which will be an essential platform for build- ing a sustainable economic recovery, rest on holding credible elections by the end of 2018. United Nations chief Antonio Guterres has praised an agreement endorsed by Libya’s rival leaders to support elections as a “significant and welcome step forward” in the North African country’s political transition. His comments in June 2018 endorsed an agreement by the four main leaders to work toward holding parliamentary and presidential elections by December 2018. A 2015 UN-brokered deal that saw the establishment of Fayez al- Sarraj’s Government of National Accord (GNA) was meant to calm years of chaos that followed the ousting of Gaddafi in 2011. But Libya has remained mired in violent turmoil as the country is riven by divisions between the western-recognised GNA in Tripoli and a rival administration backed by military strongman Khalifa Haftar in the east who leads the so-called Libyan National Army. A conflict over the rights to oil output in July showed that hopes of a deal between the GNA and the rival administration in Tobruk are still very faint. The status quo in Libya cannot be sustained, according to the most senior United Nations official in the country. Ghas- san Salamé, Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), warned in July 2018 of a potential threat of economic collapse, the break- down of public services and more frequent and intense outbreaks of violence. He said the priority was to abolish the current patchwork of institutions and deliver clear and effective leadership by legitimate bodies formed through elections. Western countries hope that a united government will bring an end to the chaos in the country since the fall of Gaddafi in 2011 that has allowed Islamic State (IS) militants to establish a base in the country.