Iraq’s rapidly expanding telecommunications and information technology (IT) sector presents nearly unparalleled opportunities for growth and development. Since the introduction of mobile telephony in 2004, the country has witnessed tremendous growth in the mobile market, with over 24 mn subscribers to date, a market penetration rate of 77% in southern and central Iraq, while mobile penetration stands at around 90% in Iraqi Kurdistan. Due in part to the current political and security situation, internet penetration levels remain low, at around 8.9%, in both Iraq and the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR). While there are currently around 1.9 mn active xed line subscribers in Iraq, growth in xed line subscriptions has plateau over the past ve years, resulting in limited investment activities. In terms of the IKR, the telecom sector remains amongst the fastest growing industries in the region, bene tting from similar attributes such as a large and tech savvy youth consumer base, strong government support and low existing penetration levels.